After the death of Moliere in 1673, the composer Jean-Baptiste Lully expelled Moliere's actors from the theater and used it for performances of operas. North, Susan, Paul Robins, Jenny Tiramani, and Richard Davis, eds. Like other artisans, they had their own professional guild, the imagiers-paintres, which also included engravers, illuminators and sculptors. When kings needed more money, they simply created more positions. 11 April – Condé, leader of the Fronde of princes, enters Paris, pursued by the royal army. In about 1612 a new form of public transport appeared, called the fiacre, a coach and driver which could be hired for short journeys. The major figures under Louis XIV were Girardon, a pupil of Anguier, and Antoine Coysevox. Religious processions were not as numerous as they had been in the Middle Ages, but they were colorful and impressive. Louis turned his attention more and more to Versailles. He boasted at least 234 rings, 324 brooches, diamond and pearl studded necklets. The arrival of the royal army under de Condé put down the first uprising, but the struggle between Mazarin and the Parlement continued. On the right bank Paris was bordered by the wall begun in 1566 by Charles V, and later finished by Louis XIII in 1635. Contact us! Less fortunate travelers had to go on foot. They were known as the Noblesse de la Grand Robe, the high nobility of the robe, because of the ceremonial costumes they wore. The empty site was divided into lots and houses constructed. I saw a house half-buried in mud, crumbling with age and rot, which had only a fraction of its roof tiles, where however were lodged more than fifty families, with all their legitimate, illegitimate and undetermined children. 9 October – Contract to build a new wall around the city, reinforced with bastions. The edges of the growing city were not clearly defined until 1638, when the royal government drew a new line, which included the Faubourgs on both the right and left banks. The woman. In 1670, the city contracted with the engineer in charge of the Samaritaine to build a second pump on the pont Notre-Dame, then, in the same year on the same bridge, a third pump. In 1638, he persuaded wealthy Parisians to donate money to establish a home for found children on rue des Boulangers, near the porte Saint-Victor. The playwright and poet Pierre Corneille described the feelings of Parisians toward the King and his government in a sonnet written shortly after the King's death; "In his name, ambition, pride, audacity and avarice made our laws: and while He was himself the most just of Kings, injustice ruled throughout his reign. Each of the sixteen quarters or neighborhoods of the city also had its own administrator, called a quarternier, who had eight deputies, called dizainiers. In 1607, Henry IV decided to build a large pump on the Seine next to the Louvre to increase the water supply for the palaces. It was also forbidden by a 1639 ordinance to paint portraits of nude men or women with "postures lascivious and dishonest, and other grotesques which injure their chastity. Paris in the 17th century was the largest city in Europe, with a population of half a million, matched in size only by London. [29], During the reign of Louis XIII, the King's official representative in Paris was the Prévôt or Provost of Paris, who had his offices at the Châtelet fortress, but most of the day-to-day administration of the city was conducted from the recently finished Hôtel de Ville, under the direction of the Provost of the Merchants, elected by the bourgeois or upper-middle class of Paris. [20], In 1670, Louis XIV declared that France was safe from attack and the walls were no longer necessary, and they were gradually replaced by boulevards lined by trees. 21 October – Louis XIV and his court return in triumph to Paris, and take up residence in the Louvre. Each horloger was allowed to have no more than one apprentice, and apprenticeship lasted six years. The return of Louis XIV and Queen Marie-Thérèse to Paris after his coronation in 1660 was celebrated by a grand event on a fairground at the gates of the city, where large thrones were constructed for the new monarchs. The new pumps were able to provide two million liters a day.[46]. A large quantity of fish was also consumed, particularly on Fridays and Catholic holidays. At the top were the Honorable hommes, a category which included the most successful merchants, artisans who had ten or fifteen employees, and a considerable number of successful painters, sculptors and engravers. The first French opera, Le Triomphe de l'Amour by Beys and Laguerre, was performed at the theater du Marais. The Paris building projects of Henry IV were managed by his forceful superintendent of buildings, a Protestant and a general, Maximilien de Béthune, Duke of Sully.[4]. The 17th century was an active and brilliant period for theater in Paris; it saw the founding of the Comedie-Française and the first productions of the works of Pierre Corneille, and Moliere. He summoned the Parlement and leading merchants and clergy, and demanded to be recognized as the leader of the city. They often were expert in cutting the cords of the purses that wealthy Parisians carried around their necks and running off with them. [57], The ceremonial entry of the King into Paris also became an occasion for festivities. The commercial center of the city was the river port, located mostly on the right bank between the Place de Greve and the Quai Saint Paul, not far from les Halles, the central market of the city. Condé abandoned Paris on October 14 and took refuge in the Spanish Netherlands. Below them, at the lowest edge of the nobility, were the ecuyers; some were from the ancient nobility, but many more recent arrivals, who had purchased a title or position at court. They also sometimes pretended to be blind or lame, so they could attract charity from the Parisians. In 1664, Louis XIV had the Tuileries garden redesigned by André Le Nôtre in the style of the classic French formal garden, with parterres bordered with low shrubs and bodies of water organized along a wide central axis. 6–7 January – Cardinal Mazarin flees from Paris. The courtyard was a school of crime; the children were taught the best techniques for stealing purses and escaping, and were given a final examination of stealing a purse in a public place, such as the Cemetery of Saints-Innocents, under the scrutiny of their teachers. Some water also came from outside the city, from springs and reservoirs in Belleville, the Pré Saint-Gervais and La Vilette, carried in aqueducts built by the monks to the monasteries on the right bank. On May 13, 1648, the Parlement called a meeting in the Chambre Saint-Louis, the main hall of the Palace on the île de la Cité, to "reform the abuses of the State".[11]. In 1789, during the French Revolution, it became the home of the French National Assembly. One good example in its original form is the Hôtel de Sully, (1624-1629), built by Jean Androuret du Cerceau.[77]. In times of food shortages, such as the famine of 1629, or epidemics, the church was often unable to take care of all of the needs of those in the parish. He wore an impressive ceremonial costume of a velour robe, silk habit and a crimson cloak, and was entitled to cover his horse and his dress his household servants in a special red livery. They lived a very precarious existence.[21]. Recalling that the ancient Romans had built an aqueduct from Rungis to their baths on the left bank, Sully, the minister of public works, sent engineers to find the route of the old aqueduct. ). All other municipal titles below the Provost and Echevins had to be purchased directly from the King. The more modest jacket-style mantua bodices are often attributed to the influence of Madame de Maintenon, the secret wife of King Louis XIV. When the theater moved to rue des Fossés-Saint-Germain in 1689, he moved the café with them. 1680-1689 In the 1680s, the bustled and trained mantua became the dominant dress for women, often in dark silk brocades. Fireworks were first mentioned in Paris in 1581, and Henry IV had put on a small display at the Hôtel de Ville in 1598 after lighting the Fire of Saint Jean, but the first large show was given on April 12, 1612 following the Carrousel to mark the opening of the place Royale and the proposed marriage of Louis XIII with Anne of Austria. “Dashing Amazons: The Development of Women’s Riding Dress, c. 1500-1900.” In. At the beginning of the century the pioneer Parisian theater company, the Confrérie de la Passion, installed itself in one of the buildings of the Hôtel de Bourgogne at 23 rue Saint-Etienne; it also rented out the space to visiting English and Italian theater companies. In 1616, she created another reminder of Florence on the right bank; the Cours la Reine, a long tree-shaded promenade along the Seine west of the Tuileries Gardens. At the end of March 1694, Madame de Sévigné wrote to friends that she had to leave the city; "there is no longer any way to live in the middle of the air and misery we have here. The Gobelins' workshops began to produce furniture for the royal residences as well as tapestries, while the Savonnerie Manufactory produced magnificent carpets for the royal palaces. After the election, held on August 16 of even-numbered years, the new Provost and new echevins were taken by carriage to the Louvre where they took an oath in person to the King and Queen.[29]. Marie de' Medici was exiled to Compiegne, then went to live in exile in Brussels, Amsterdam and Cologne, where she died in 1642. 18 March – First public transport line established of coaches running regularly between, 5–6 June – A grand circular procession, or, 6 January – Large banquet given at the Louvre, concluding with the premiere of, First exposition of works by members of the Academy of Painting and Sculpture, the origin of the future. Under Henry IV the old garden was rebuilt, following a design of Claude Mollet, with the participation of Pierre Le Nôtre, the father of the famous garden architect. [56], For the nobility, the most important event at the beginning of the century was the carrousel, a series of exercises and games on horseback. Based on the newspaper, he founded the first employment bureau in Paris, matching employers and job-seekers. In 1680, there were an estimated eight thousand five hundred Protestants in the city, or about two percent of the population. [69], A new theater company, the Illustre Théâtre, was founded in 1643 by Moliere and Madeleine Béjart. It cost 60,000 livres to become President of the Parlement of Paris, and 100,000 livres to be President of the Grand Council. The business was started by an entrepreneur from Amiens named Sauvage on the rue Saint-Martin. The 1640s saw womenswear trend in a softer and slightly simpler direction, with low necklines and billowing three-quarter length sleeves often in satin of a single color. These measures caused a rebellion within the Parlement of Paris, which was not an elected assembly but a high court made up of prominent noblemen. 1630-1639, 17th century, artwork analysis. In the center of the old medieval fortress, where the great round tower had been, he created the harmonious Cour Carrée, or square courtyard, with its sculpted facades. They were dimly lit by a small number of oil lamps. Men of the period uniformly adopted the long collarless coat (known as a justaucorps) and full curly wigs became the dominant hairstyle. On the left bank, the edges of the city were at rue de Tolbiac to the east and close to the modern Pont d'Alma to the west. On September 24, a large demonstration took place outside the Palais-Royal, demanding the return of the King. Designed by Elegant Themes | Powered by WordPress, Arnold, Janet. They were joined by the Dominicans and by the Jesuits, who founded the College of Clermont of the Sorbonne, and built the opulent new Church of Saint-Paul-Saint-Louis next to their headquarters on rue Saint-Antoine. In 1669, fiacres were required to have large numbers painted in yellow on the sides and rear of the coach. Cardinals Richelieu and Mazarin encouraged the development of French music in place of the Italian style. The dyeing industry was located in the Faubourg Saint-Marcel, along the River Bievre, which was quickly polluted by the workshops and dye vats along its banks. The quality of the carpets, tapestries, furniture, glass and other products was unmatched; the problem was that it was nearly all destined for a single client, the King, and his new residence at Versailles. Its purpose, like Baroque music and painting, was to awe Parisians with its majesty and ornament, in opposition to the austere style of the Protestant Reformation. In 1665, a new weekly, Le Journal des savants appeared, followed in 1672 by Le Mercure Galant. 11 December – A decree re-organizes the policing of Paris, and quadruples the number of city watchmen. The young inhabitants became expert in not only stealing, but also in simulating blindness, gangrene, rabies, and a wide variety of horrifying wounds and illnesses. Thereafter fireworks, launched from the quays of the Seine, were a regular feature of the celebrations of holidays and special events. On March 15, 1667, he named Gabriel Nicolas de la Reynie to a new position, the Lieutenant General of Police, with the function of making the city work more efficiently, but also to suppress any opposition or criticism of the king. The police rounded up the rest, confined the men who were able to work in a large house in the faubourg Saint-Victor, and the women and children in another large house in faubourg Saint-Marcel. The tax on wine was a major source of income for the royal government; the wine was taxed as soon as it arrived at the port; the tax rose from three livres for a muid or barrel of wine in 1638 to 15 livres for wine arriving by land in 1680 and 18 livres for wine arriving by water. 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