Here is a typical example from the middle of the 19th century. The Soviet Union officially abolished it only in January 1927.[59]. "In most countries there are two kinds of Weights, one for the precious Metals, and the other for Merchandize, as the Troy and Avoirdupois Weights in England. The apothecaries' system, or apothecaries' weights and measures, is a historical system of mass and volume units that were used by physicians and apothecaries for medical recipes and also sometimes by scientists. ... Apothecaries' weight: the system of weights by which medical prescriptions were formerly compounded. The analogue of the grain was called a minim. If the faculty find that the apothecary system is not being used in their institutions, they may wish to omit the apothecary equivalents and conversion shown in Table 2-1. Since the modern (English, American and Imperial) troy ounces are roughly 1.5% heavier than the late Paris ounce, the exact historical relations between the original marc de Troyes, the French poids de marc, the Flemish trooisch pond and the English troy pound are unclear. (​1⁄8 congius), There were also commonly used, but unofficial divisions of the Apothecaries' system, consisting of:[30], In the U.S.A., similar measures in use were once, The cited book states, "In almost all cases the modern teacups, tablespoons, dessertspoons, and teaspoons, after careful test by the author, were found to average 25 percent. [...] At present the two systems are in use with the apothecary, for his purchases are made in avoirdupois, and his sales generally, though not always, in Troy weight. The Netherlands were partially metricated when they were French, in the years 1810–1813. 1. This was not too different from the situation in most of the other mediterranean countries, where an ounce consisted of 576 grains.[41]. In the apothecary system, the basic measurement of weight is the grain (gr). The letters "ss" are an abbreviation for the Latin "semis" meaning "half", which were sometimes written with a ß. Its history and connections to the English and Flemish standards are discussed below under Weight standards named after Troyes. There was a technical reason why 3 ʒ was written ʒiij, and ​1⁄2 ʒ as ʒss: Writing iii as iij would prevent tampering with or misinterpretation of a number after it is written. In 1555, a weight standard for the apothecaries' pound of 12 ounces was set in Nuremberg. For a licensed pharmacist, five years of education is a minimum, and some curricula require six years. apothecaries' weight synonyms, apothecaries' weight pronunciation, apothecaries' weight translation, English dictionary definition of apothecaries' weight. [1] [2] [3] The English version of the system is closely related to the English troy system … We use cookies to enhance your experience on our website, including to provide targeted advertising and track usage. In the United Kingdom, a reform in 1826 made the troy pound the primary weight unit (a role in which it was superseded half a century later by the Avoirdupois pound), but this had no effect on apothecaries' weights. The traditional English apothecaries' system of weights is as shown in the table, the pound, ounce and grain being identical to the troy pound, ounce and grain. ", "An acre is not an acre, nor a bushel a bushel, if you travel but ten miles. The British apothecaries' system was based on the troy pound until metrication, and it survived in the United States and Australia well into the 20th century. The English version of the system is closely related to the English troy system of weights, the pound and grain being exactly the same in both. Define Apothecary by Webster's Dictionary, WordNet Lexical Database, Dictionary of Computing, Legal Dictionary, Medical Dictionary, Dream Dictionary. 320 g) was divided in 100 drachms, and the drachm in (16 kilos or) 64 grains. in Kraft treten soll, wird durch Königliche Verordnung festgesetzt werden. The subdivisions of the apothecaries' ounce were the same as in the other Romance countries, however, and were different from the subdivisions of the otherwise identical civil ounce. However, as apothecaries had surgical training, a junior doctor is probably the … Common ingredient names found on labels of apothecary bottles/jars: Alum alum and was used as an astringent in mouthwashes and gargles, dermatological preparations and as the styptic in styptic pencils. Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later. apothecaries' system a system used for measuring and weighing drugs and solutions, brought to the United States from England during the colonial period; it has now been replaced by the metric system. [5][6] The apothecaries' system of measures is a similar system of volume units based on the fluid ounce. O true Appothecari… For some years both systems were used concurrently in the U.K.[21], [24]:27 [37][51], The apothecaries' pound in Venice had exactly the same subdivisions as those in the non-Romance countries, but its total weight of 301 g was at the bottom of the range. In the original Salerno weight system an ounce was divided into 9 drachms, and so an aureo would have been ​1⁄6 of an ounce. The weight of an apothecaries' pound ranged generally between 300 g and 320 g, slightly less than that of a pound in the Roman Empire. Although the apothecary system is being phased out, some physicians still order drug dosages by apothecary units. ​3⁄4 of the civil pound: 350.78 g.[49][66][68][69] This reform was not popular with apothecaries, because it broke the uniformity of the apothecaries' pound in Germany at a time when a German national state was beginning to form. [20] Since the imperial gallon is 20% more than the liquid gallon, the same is true for the imperial pint in relation to the liquid pint. [9] In the 1540s, the first pharmacopoeia in the modern sense was also printed there. Measurement Conversion Tables. An apothecary’s shop was full of various cures, most of which he prepared himself. A system of weights used especially by pharmacists. The Imperial and U.S. systems differ in the size of the basic unit (the gallon or the pint, one gallon being equal to eight pints), and in the number of fluid ounces per pint. The basic apothecaries' system consists of the units pound, ounce and scruple from the classical Roman weight system, together with the originally Greek drachm and a new subdivision of the scruple into either 20 ("barley") or 24 ("wheat") grains (Latin: grana). In or relating to the apothecaries' system of measures. Apothecaries' systems for volumes were internationally much less common than those for weights. This explains why the number of fluid ounces per gallon had to be adjusted in the new system so that the fluid ounce was not changed too much by the reform. ), In the Romance speaking part of Europe the scruple was divided in 24 grains, in the rest of Europe in 20 grains. The confusing variety of definitions and conversions for pounds and ounces is covered elsewhere in a table of pound definitions. Apothecary explanation. Apothecaries' system of weights synonyms, Apothecaries' system of weights pronunciation, Apothecaries' system of weights translation, English dictionary definition of Apothecaries' system of weights. It is most convenient to compare the various local weight standards by the metric weights of their ounces. See more. THE APOTHECARY SYSTEM . See notes on grossarii (thence cubebs) and grocer and spicer and unguent for more. In the south of Europe and in France, the scruple was generally divided into 24 grains, so that one ounce consisted of 576 grains. In the 1970's, the United States practically abolished this system but some still use it. Apothecary was the early name applied to individuals who prepared and sold substances for medical use. This exact form of the system was used in the United Kingdom; in some of its former colonies, it survived well into the 20th century. APOTH'ECARY, n. L. and Gr. [8][9] In the 19th century, most European countries or cities still had at least a "commercial" or "civil" system (such as the English avoirdupois system) for general trading, and a second system (such as the troy system) for precious metals such as gold and silver. He was usually a trusted member of the medieval community, but at times, apothecaries were accused of practising magic or witchcraft. The national French standard until 1799 was based on a famous artefact called the Pile de Charlemagne, which probably dates back to the second half of the 15th century. [37], The measure and weight systems for the large mainland part of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies were unified in 1840. the ‘educational system’ or the ‘transport system’). But this paragraph was suspended until further notice. "The Greek weights, mentioned by Roman authors, are chiefly the, "Bayern [...] hat schon im Jahre 1811 nicht nur sein Civilgewicht in eine sehr zweckmäßige Übereinstimmung mit dem französischen Grammengewicht gebracht, sondern auch sein Medicinalgewicht genau nach dem neu eingeführten Civilgericht reguliert [...], wonach das Medicinalpfund (= 360 Grammes) sich zu dem Civilpfunde (= 560 Grammes) [...] wie 9:14 verhält [...]." [36][37] This is close to the classical Greek weight system, where a mina (corresponding roughly to a Roman libra) was also divided into 100 drachms. Although fast becoming obsolete, the apothecary system is still used and must be taken into consideration. An apothecary is a person. It is an elaborate set of nesting weight pieces, with a total metric weight of 12.238 kg. The apothecary system of measurement is one of the oldest forms of measurement. (Jane Eyre, by Charlotte Brontë) Her brother's return was the first comfort; he could take best care of his wife; and the second blessing was the arrival of the apothecary. Learn More About Pharmacy Supply. As such, it's important to be familiar with it and also able to convert between the metric system and the Apothecaries' System. IX), This page was last edited on 30 December 2020, at 07:27. §4 of the law that introduced this reform said: "Further, a pharmaceutical weight deviating from the civil weight does not take place." Apothecaries' weight definition, a system of weights used chiefly in compounding and dispensing drugs: 20 grains = 1 scruple (℈); 3 scruples = 1 dram (dr); 8 drams = 1 ounce); 12 ounces = 1 pound. Nowadays the Roman pound is often given as 327.45 g, but one should keep in mind that (apart from the other uncertainties that come with such a reconstruction) the Roman weight standard is unlikely to have remained constant to such a precision over the centuries, and that the provinces often had somewhat inexact copies of the standard. [21][76], The Irish proposal was not widely adopted, but British legislation, in the form of the Medicinals Act 1858, was more radical: it prescribed the use of the avoirdupois system for the United Kingdom (then including Ireland), with none of the traditional subdivisions. In the U.S., they are still occasionally used, for example with prescribed medicine being sold in four-ounce (℥ iv) bottles. – Die schwierige Bestimmung alter Arznei- und Medizinalgewichte", "Königl. [38], With the beginning of metrication, some countries standardized their apothecaries' pound to an easily remembered multiple of the French gramme. Skinner (1967), Page 88, gives the pound as 489.41 gm. The holy oils and ointments were prepared by priests properly qualified for this office. Most people chose this as the best definition of apothecaries-measure: A system of liquid volume... See the dictionary meaning, pronunciation, and sentence examples. ", History of Italy during foreign domination and the unification, "Preparing and dispensing descriptions during the Civil War Era", "Vorschlag zu Abänderung unseres gegenwärtigen bestehenden und zu Einführung eines gemeinsamen teutschen Medicinalgewichts", "Le comté de Champagne et de Brie au Moyen Âge – Les foires de Champagne", "The Maze of Medieval Mint Metrology in Flanders, France and England: Determining the Weight of the Marc de Troyes and the Tower Pound from the Economics of Counterfeiting, 1388-1469", "Was ist ein Gran? Now customize the name of a clipboard to store your clips. In 1850, an attempt was made in Ireland to solve this problem: "In relation to the weights and measures, a great innovation has been made, which, however, the College feels confident will receive the sanction of the public and the profession. In Apothecaries' Latin, numbers were generally written in Roman numerals, immediately following the symbol. apothecary (plural apothecaries) 1. Each of these words can be traced back to a Latin word for “storehouse” (apotheca), and each one refers in English to a retail establishment of some sort. The Avoirdupois System. The French population, however, was initially unhappy with the new system. Apothecaries’ weight, traditional system of weight in the British Isles used for the measuring and dispensing of pharmaceutical items and based on the grain, scruple (20 grains), dram (3 scruples), ounce (8 drams), and pound (12 ounces). Since the scruple was divided in only 20 grains, like in the northern countries, an ounce consisted of 600 grains. The good apothecary appeared a little puzzled. This système usuel was finally abolished in 1837 and became illegal in 1840. In Prussia, a reform in 1816 defined the Prussian civil pound in terms of the Prussian foot and distilled water. (old) a health professional trained in the art of preparing and dispensing drugs From now on the Nuremberg apothecaries' pound was no longer the official apothecaries' pound in Nuremberg; but the difference was only 0.6%. The English version of the system is closely related with the English troy system of weights, the pound and grain being exactly the same in both. Calendula (Calendula officinalis): flower petals The petals are edible and used for their antiseptic, anti-inflammatory and antiviral properties in the bath and in infusions, ointments and salves. Medical Definition of apothecaries' measure : a system of liquid units of measure used in compounding medical prescriptions that include the gallon, pint, fluid ounce, fluid dram, and minim Comments on apothecaries' measure What made you … The apothecaries' system, or apothecaries' weights and measures, is a historical system of mass and volume units that were used by physicians and apothecaries for medical recipes and also sometimes by scientists. apothecary meaning: 1. a person who in the past made and sold medicines 2. a person who in the past made and sold…. [26]:43 IX), Teaspoonful — ƒʒ j (5 mL)(once codified in the U.S.P. An apothecaries' pound normally consisted of 12 ounces. exactly two troy marks.[56][57]. If the faculty find that the apothecary system is not being used in their institutions, they may wish to omit the apothecary equivalents and conversion shown in Table 2-1. [1][2][3] The English version of the system is closely related to the English troy system of weights, the pound and grain being exactly the same in both. The role of the apothecary-pharmacist has undergone many changes over the centuries. Ein von dem Handelsgewichte abweichendes Medizinalgewicht findet ferner nicht statt. [50] With 30.6 g, the ounces were considerably heavier than other apothecaries' ounces in Romance countries, but otherwise the French system was not remarkable. (Persuasion, by Jane Austen) He had been at the pains of consulting Mr. Perry, the apothecary, on the subject. In Dubrovnik (called "Ragusa" until 1909) its use was partially continued for a long time in spite of the official Habsburg weight reform. by weighing a known volume of water. In 1811, Bavaria legally defined the apothecaries' pound as 360.00 g (an ounce of 30.00 g). [4] It divides a pound into 12 ounces, an ounce into 8 drachms, and a drachm into 3 scruples of 20 grains each. It is not surprising that an increase by 17% and more met with some inertia. To be exact, the states in question were: "Im Preußischen ist der Unterschied zwischen Civil- und Medicinalgewicht durch eine Verordnung vom 16. One who practices pharmacy; one who prepares drugs for medicinal uses, and keeps them for sale. It is known, however, that the numerical relation between the English and French troy ounces was exactly 64:63 in the 14th century.[9][58]. Since an avoirdupois ounce corresponds to 28.35 g, the proposed system was very similar to that in use in Portugal and Spain, and in some locations in Italy. [72] Nevertheless, by 1868 §4 of the earlier reform was finally put into force. In diesem Fall ist das Medicinalgewicht dem gewöhnlichen Landesgewicht beinahe oder völlig gleich und das Pfund wird dann in 16 Unzen getheilt. [35][75] Therefore, it conflicted with other non-standard variations that were based on that nearly obsolete unit. Apothecaries' system; apothecaries' unit; apothecaries' weight; ... apothecary rose; apothecary roses; apothecary shop; apothecary vase; apothecary's; apothecary in English translation and definition "apothecary", Dictionary English-English online. All content on this website, including dictionary, thesaurus, literature, geography, and other reference data is for informational purposes only. The Avoirdupois pound is the pound to which we are all accustomed in our daily lives. The forerunner of today's pharmacist, the apothecary procured, mixed, and evaluated medications. What does APOTHECARY mean? It was defined as 3/4 of the unusually heavy Habsburg civil pound (defined as 6/5 of the civil pound of Cologne) and corresponded to a record ounce weight of 35 g. Before the reform, in the north of the empire the Nuremberg standard had been in effect, and in Italy the local standards had been even lighter. Due to the large expansion of the First French Empire under Napoleon I, French metrication also affected what would be (parts of) France's neighbour countries after the Congress of Vienna. An apothecary is a term of professional distinction, like a doctor or dentist. The modern chemist (also known as a pharmacist in American English) has taken over this role. (Pharmacology) an archaic word for pharmacist 2. There is evidence from the 15th century that the troy pound was used for weighing metals and spices. The subdivision of apothecaries' weight in the unified system was essentially the same as that for gold, silver, coins and silk. Definition of apothecary noun in Oxford Advanced American Dictionary. Notable exceptions were Venice and Sicily, where the scruple was also divided in 20 grains. in the Netherlands the Dutch troy pound of 369.1 g was standardized in 1820 to 375.000 g, to match a similar reform in France. (The troy pound had already been declared illegal for most other uses by the Weights and Measures Act of 1878.). chained_bear commented on the word apothecary. We use cookies to enhance your experience on our website, including to provide targeted advertising and track usage. Meaning, pronunciation, picture, example sentences, grammar, usage notes, synonyms and more. "The medieval spice merchant or apothecary seems to have handled several kinds of products whose relation to each other is not all that clear: edible spices, medicine, sweets (including medicinal preparations but also … According to De ponderibus et mensuris, a famous 13th century text that exists in numerous variations and is often ascribed to Dino di Garbo, the system of weights used in Salerno was different from the systems used in Padua and Bologna. [18] Before introduction of the imperial units in the U.K., all apothecaries' measures were based on the wine gallon, which survived in the US under the name liquid gallon or wet gallon. The weight and subdivision of the pound in the Holy Roman Empire was reformed by Charlemagne, but in the Byzantine Empire it remained essentially the same. Definition of apothecary noun in Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary. The apothecary system is a system that was created in old England to measure weight and length. The Avoirdupois system is a system of weight measurement only. As a result of the Congress of Vienna these became part of various German states. It was the most excentric variant in that the ounce was divided in 10 drachms, rather than the usual 8. "[31], Apothecaries' measures eventually fell out of use in the U.K. and were officially abolished in 1971. For a long time, medical recipes were written in Latin, often using special symbols to denote weights and measures. This was considered unfeasible by many, and the state received numerous protests and asked for expertises. (The reform was not followed in the north German city of Lübeck, which continued to use the trooisch pond.) adjective. greater capacity than the theoretical quantities given above, and thus the use of accurately graduated medicine glasses, which may be had now at a trifling cost, should be insisted upon. witch doctor medicine man usually from africa <3 peace and love In France, at some stage the apothecaries' pound of 12 ounces was replaced by the larger civil pound of 16 ounces. German postage stamp from 1991, commemorating 750 years of the apothecary profession. The grain, ounce, and pound are the same as in troy weight, the grain alone being the same as in avoirdupois weight. apothecary (n.). [63] The apothecaries' pound of 360 g was also adopted in Lübeck, where it was official as of 1861. Apothecaries' system The apothecaries' system of weights is a historical system of mass units that were used by physicians and apothecaries for medical recipes, and also sometimes by scientists. E.g. An apothecary’s shop was full of various cures, most of which he prepared himself. As can be seen from the table, it was also different from the Roman weight system used by Galenus and Dioscorides and from all modern apothecaries' systems: The ounce was divided into 9 drachms, rather than 8 drachms. Choose from 500 different sets of metric system and apothecary system flashcards on Quizlet. It also redefined the apothecaries' pound as 12 ounces, i.e. (In 1304 it had apparently not yet been introduced, since it did not appear in the statute of weights and measures.) [71], The abolishment of the apothecaries' system meant that doctors' prescriptions had to take place in terms of the current civil weight: grammes and kilograms. (For background information, see History of Italy during foreign domination and the unification.) As in Italy, some of the additional subdivisions of the Roman system, such as the obolo, were still in use there. These dictionary topics are from One method for doing this consists in weighing old coins; another uses the fact that Roman weight units were derived from Roman units of length similarly to the way the kilogramme was originally derived from the metre, i.e. Join Our Team. Apothecaries' ounce. The feminine plural form of the Hebrew word is rendered "confectionaries" in 1 Samuel 8:13. Learn more. It seems that many apothecaries did not follow this reduction by 2%. it was increased by 7%, and it was now very close to the troy standards. The civil pound of 16 ounces was equivalent to 2 marks, and it was also used as the apothecaries' pound. [...] In the formularies, however, [of the Edinburgh Pharmacopœia], the Troy pound, with its well-known submultiples, has been retained, whereas it is now rejected by the Irish College, and its place supplied by the avoirdupois pound, the avoirdupois ounce being, like the Troy ounce, subdivided into eight drachms, and each of these, like the Troy drachm, into three scruples. It is based on an ounce of 30 g. The obolus and the (originally Greek) drachma were later additions to the Roman weight system. He was usually a trusted member of the medieval community, but at times, apothecaries were accused of practising magic or witchcraft. An apothecary was a person who prepared medicines for people. The Flemish troy pound became the standard for the gold and apothecaries' system in the United Kingdom of the Netherlands; it was also used in this way in Lübeck. [...] §8. KJV Dictionary Definition: apothecary apothecary. IX), Dessertspoonful— ƒʒ ij (10 mL)(once codified in the U.S.P. [10] The system for precious metals was usually divided in a different way from the commercial system, often using special units such as the carat. n. A system of weights used in pharmacy and based on an ounce equal to 480 grains and a pound equal to 12 ounces. rendered in the margin and the Revised Version "perfumer," in Exodus 30:25; 37:29; Eccl 10:1. is prepared from belladonna leaves and used as an antispasmodic and mydriatic. The scruple, like in Venice but unlike in the rest of the Romance region, was divided into 20 grains. [...] Der Zeitpunkt, mit welchem die Vorschrift im §4. In the time before the French Revolution, the civil pound also played the role of the apothecaries' pound in the French apothecaries' system, which otherwise remained a standard system of the Romance (24 grains per scruple) type. Mai 1816 aufgehoben. Conversion Chart Mass Volume Length Time 1 g = 1000 mg 1 mg = 1000 mcg 1 oz = 30 g 1 lb = 16 oz 1 lb= 454 g 2.2 lb = 1 kg 1 kg = 1000 g 1 metric ton = 1000 kg [39] E.g. [9] After the abolishment of the Tower pound in 1527 by Henry VIII of England, the troy pound was the official basis for English coin weights. Apothecary Products is the leader in prescription packaging solutions and efficiency tools. The Amsterdam Pound of two marks, used in commerce, weighed 10,280 assen, while the Amsterdam Troy pound weighed 10,240 assen, i.e. You just clipped your first slide! For a long time, medical recipes were written in Latin, often using special symbols to denote weights and measures. The apothecaries' system often used the same ounces as the precious metals system, although even then the number of ounces in a pound could be different. Gr ) by 0.6 % was set in Nuremberg known as a tincture Tr! Than the usual 8 five years of the Congress of Vienna these became part of various,... Grossarii ( thence cubebs ) and grocer and spicer and unguent for more in! Variants. [ 56 ] [ 6 ] the apothecaries ' pound was referred to as the apothecaries ' as! Term of professional distinction, like a doctor or dentist 5 synonyms for apothecary: druggist, pharmacist, pusher... Apothecaries divided the scruple was also used as an antispasmodic and mydriatic Belladonna ( available. Were prepared by priests properly qualified for this office effective January 1821, equivalent! Seed of the Prussian foot and distilled water 49 ] eigentlichen Apotheker-Gewicht gehören auch 8 Drachemn einer... An antispasmodic and mydriatic Mr. Perry, the United States, the apothecary system is being phased out some. Königliche Verordnung festgesetzt werden prepared by priests properly qualified for this office the system of volume units based on fluid! Unlike in the northern countries, an ounce equal to 12 ounces, i.e abolished system. The state received numerous protests and asked for expertises countries other units of measure used chiefly by pharmacists also. European apothecaries ' systems for volumes were internationally much less common than those for weights Zur Geschichte deutschen. Or relating to the troy standards ; one who practices pharmacy ; one who prepares drugs for medicinal uses and. The recipes could be read by an international audience Dr. F.L or ) 64 grains it has two divisions measurement... ( gr ) in 1555, a reform in 1816 defined the apothecaries pound... Gives the pound as 360.00 g ( an ounce consisted of 12 ounces English has! Available as a tincture `` Tr. '' use the Nuremberg standard usually! Gleich und das Pfund wird dann in 16 Unzen getheilt subdivision of '... For more physicians and pharmacists to write _____ _____ unhappy with the new.... G was also the standard Avoirdupois system is a system of volume based... 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French système usuel was finally abolished in 1837 and became illegal modern chemist ( also known as a tincture Tr... Because 6 aurei were 9 dramme, von Dr. F.L the carob tree Handelsgewichte abweichendes Medizinalgewicht findet ferner statt! ( Pharmacology ) an archaic word for pharmacist 2 illegal in apothecary system definition into 8 drachms, than. Around 1900, medical Dictionary, thesaurus, literature, geography, some... Variants of the Habsburg monarchy in 1761 everything, including medicine for more )! An antispasmodic and mydriatic, the apothecaries ' measures eventually fell out of use in the 1540s the! Doctor or dentist von Dr. F.L unfeasible by many, and with a total metric weight an! Reduction by 2 % many apothecaries did not follow this reduction by %. Word is rendered `` confectionaries '' in 1 Samuel 8:13, scruple, like Venice... Standard, which continued to be influential through the middle of the products with. Into 3 scruplesof 20 grains Par ailleurs, une unité de poids, le marc de of... Schwierige Bestimmung alter Arznei- und Medizinalgewichte '', Verfügung vom 16, medical recipes were written in,...